There are 4 programming assignments. Assignments are due at 11:59pm.

Full details for the assignment are in your github repository for this class

1: MapReduce

In this lab you'll build a MapReduce library as a way to learn the Go programming language and as a way to learn about fault tolerance in distributed systems. In the first part you will write a simple MapReduce program. In the second part you will write a Master that hands out jobs to workers, and handles failures of workers. The interface to the library and the approach to fault tolerance is similar to the one described in the original MapReduce paper.

2: Primary/Backup Key/Value Service

In the MapReduce lab handling failures is relatively easy because the workers don't maintain state. The master does maintain state, but you didn't have to make the master fault tolerant. This lab is a first step in the direction of making servers with state fault tolerant.

3: Paxos-based Key/Value Service

Your Project 2 depends on a single master view server to pick the primary. If the view server is not available (crashes or has network problems), then your key/value service won't work, even if both primary and backup are available. It also has the less critical defect that it copes with a server (primary or backup) that's briefly unavailable (e.g. due to a lost packet) by either blocking or declaring it dead; the latter is very expensive because it requires a complete key/value database transfer.

In this lab you'll fix the above problems by using Paxos to manage the replication of a key/value store. You won't have anything corresponding to a master view server. Instead, a set of replicas will process all client requests in the same order, using Paxos to agree on the order. Paxos will get the agreement right even if some of the replicas are unavailable, or have unreliable network connections, or even if subsets of the replicas are isolated in their own network partitions. As long as Paxos can assemble a majority of replicas, it can process client operations. Replicas that were not in the majority can catch up later by asking Paxos for operations that they missed.

4: Sharded Key/Value Service

In this lab you'll build a key/value storage system that "shards," or partitions, the keys over a set of replica groups. A shard is a subset of the key/value pairs; for example, all the keys starting with "a" might be one shard, all the keys starting with "b" another, etc. The reason for sharding is performance. Each replica group handles puts and gets for just a few of the shards, and the groups operate in parallel; thus total system throughput (puts and gets per unit time) increases in proportion to the number of groups.

Your sharded key/value store will have two main components. First, a set of replica groups. Each replica group is responsible for a subset of the shards. A replica consists of a handful of servers that use Paxos to replicate the group's shard. The second component is the "shard master". The shard master decides which replica group should serve each shard; this information is called the configuration. The configuration changes over time. Clients consult the shard master in order to find the replica group for a key, and replica groups consult the master in order to find out what shards to serve. There is a single shard master for the whole system, implemented as a fault-tolerant service using Paxos.


This project is based on the project used at MIT's distributed systems course (6.824), which has been taught by Robert Morris, Frans Kaashoek, and Nickolai Zeldovich.

The 6.824 course materials are available under a CC BY 3.0 US license. We thank Robert Morris, Frans Kaashoek, and Nickolai Zeldovich for sharing their course materials.