Have you ever...
Was it fun?
These things happen to programmers all the time. But dealing with such problems is often harder than it should be because topics like testing, debugging, portability, performance, design alternatives, and style -- the practice of programming -- are not usually the focus of computer science or programming courses. Most programmers learn them haphazardly as their experience grows, and a few never learn them at all.
In a world of enormous and intricate interfaces, constantly changing tools and languages and systems, and relentless pressure for more of everything, one can lose sight of the basic principles -- simplicity, clarity, generality -- that form the bedrock of good software. One can also overlook the value of tools and notations that mechanize some of software creation and thus enlist the computer in its own programming.
Our approach in this book is based on these underlying, interrelated principles, which apply at all levels of computing. These include simplicity, which keeps programs short and manageable; clarity, which makes sure they are easy to understand, for people as well as machines; generality, which means they work well in a broad range of situations and adapt well as new situations arise; and automation, which lets the machine do the work for us, freeing us from mundane tasks. By looking at computer programming in a variety of languages, from algorithms and data structures through design, debugging, testing, and performance improvement, we can illustrate universal engineering concepts that are independent of language, operating system, or programming paradigm.
This book comes from many years of experience writing and maintaining a lot of software, teaching programming courses, and working with a wide variety of programmers. We want to share lessons about practical issues, to pass on insights from our experience, and to suggest ways for programmers of all levels to be more proficient and productive.
We are writing for several kinds of readers. If you are a student who has taken a programming course or two and would like to be a better programmer, this book will expand on some of the topics for which there wasn't enough time in school. If you write programs as part of your work, but in support of other activities rather than as the goal in itself, the information will help you to program more effectively. If you are a professional programmer who didn't get enough exposure to such topics in school or who would like a refresher, or if you are a software manager who wants to guide your staff in the right direction, the material here should be of value.
We hope that the advice will help you to write better programs. The only prerequisite is that you have done some programming, preferably in C, C++ or Java. Of course the more experience you have, the easier it will be; nothing can take you from neophyte to expert in 21 days. Unix and Linux programmers will find some of the examples more familiar than will those who have used only Windows and Macintosh systems, but programmers from any environment should discover things to make their lives easier.
The presentation is organized into nine chapters, each focusing on one major aspect of programming practice.
Chapter 1 discusses programming style. Good style is so important to good programming that we have chosen to cover it first. Well-written programs are better than badly-written ones -- they have fewer errors and are easier to debug and to modify -- so it is important to think about style from the beginning. This chapter also introduces an important theme in good programming, the use of idioms appropriate to the language being used.
Algorithms and data structures, the topics of Chapter 2, are the core of the computer science curriculum and a major part of programming courses. Since most readers will already be familiar with this material, our treatment is intended as a brief review of the handful of algorithms and data structures that show up in almost every program. More complex algorithms and data structures usually evolve from these building blocks, so one should master the basics.
Chapter 3 describes the design and implementation of a small program that illustrates algorithm and data structure issues in a realistic setting. The program is implemented in five languages; comparing the versions shows how the same data structures are handled in each, and how expressiveness and performance vary across a spectrum of languages.
Interfaces between users, programs, and parts of programs are fundamental in programming and much of the success of software is determined by how well interfaces are designed and implemented. Chapter 4 shows the evolution of a small library for parsing a widely used data format. Even though the example is small, it illustrates many of the concerns of interface design: abstraction, information hiding, resource management, and error handling.
Much as we try to write programs correctly the first time, bugs, and therefore debugging, are inevitable. Chapter 5 gives strategies and tactics for systematic and effective debugging. Among the topics are the signatures of common bugs and the importance of ``numerology,'' where patterns in debugging output often indicate where a problem lies.
Testing is an attempt to develop a reasonable assurance that a program is working correctly and that it stays correct as it evolves. The emphasis in Chapter 6 is on systematic testing by hand and machine. Boundary condition tests probe at potential weak spots. Mechanization and test scaffolds make it easy to do extensive testing with modest effort. Stress tests provide a different kind of testing than typical users do and ferret out a different class of bugs.
Computers are so fast and compilers are so good that many programs are fast enough the day they are written. But others are too slow, or they use too much memory, or both. Chapter 7 presents an orderly way to approach the task of making a program use resources efficiently, so that the program remains correct and sound as it is made more efficient.
Chapter 8 covers portability. Successful programs live long enough that their environment changes, or they must be moved to new systems or new hardware or new countries. The goal of portability is to reduce the maintenance of a program by minimizing the amount of change necessary to adapt it to a new environment.
Computing is rich in languages,
not just the general-purpose ones that we use for
the bulk of programming, but also many specialized languages
that focus on narrow domains.
Chapter 9 presents several examples of the importance of
notation in computing, and shows how we can use it to
simplify programs, to guide implementations, and even
to help us write programs that write programs.
. . .
Copyright © 1999 Lucent Technologies. All rights reserved.