Andrew W. Appel's Public Policy Page

I am interested in technology policy as it applies to freedom of speech: copyright law, cryptography law and policy, intellectual property, and scholarly inquiry. I have also studied and taught on issues relating to voting machines.

Securing the Vote: Protecting American Democracy, by National Academies of Science, Engineering, and Medicine: Lee C. Bollinger, Michael A. McRobbie, Andrew W. Appel, Josh Benaloh, Karen Cook, Dana DeBeauvoir, Moon Duchin, Juan E. Gilbert, Susan L. Graham, Neal Kelley, Kevin J. Kennedy, Nathaniel Persily, Ronald L. Rivest, Charles Stewart III. September 2018.

My blog at Freedom-to-Tinker

2019 articles

Reexamination of an all-in-one voting machine
Voting machines I recommend
BMDs are not meaningfully auditable
ImageCast Evolution voting machine: Mitigations, misleadings, and misunderstandings
How to do a Risk-Limiting Audit

2018 articles

Are voting-machine modems truly divorced from the Internet?
Securing the Vote — National Academies report
Serious design flaw in ESS ExpressVote touchscreen: “permission to cheat”
Design flaw in Dominion ImageCast Evolution voting machine
Continuous-roll VVPAT under glass: an idea whose time has passed
An unverifiability principle for voting machines
Ten ways to make voting machines cheat with plausible deniability
Cheating with paper ballots
End-to-End Verifiable Elections
When the optical scanners jam up, what then?
Two cheers for limited democracy in New Jersey
Florida is the Florida of ballot-design mistakes
Expert opinions on in-person voting machines and vote-by-mail
Why voters should mark ballots by hand
Pilots of risk-limiting election audi ts in California and Virginia

2016 articles

Apple/FBI: Freedom of speech vs. compulsion to sign
Internet Voting, Utah GOP Primary Election
Internet Voting? Really?
Security against Election Hacking – Part 1: Software Independence
Security against Election Hacking – Part 2: Cyberoffense is not the best cyberdefense!
Which voting machines can be hacked through the Internet?
My testimony before the House Subcommittee on IT

2015 articles

Freedom to Tinker on the Radio
A clear line between offense and defense

2013 articles

Oral arguments in NJ voting-machines lawsuit appeal
Ed Felten elected to National Academy

2012 articles

Copyright in Scholarly Publishing, 2012 Edition
Modest Proposals for Academic Authors
Contract hacking and community organizing
Broken Ballots
Oral Arguments 12/4 in NJ Voting-Machine Lawsuit
NJ Lt. Governor invites voters to submit invalid ballots
Voting machine lawsuit, oral arguments, venue change

2011 articles

Monitoring all the electrical and hydraulic appliances in your house
Seals on NJ voting machines, 2004-2008
Seals on NJ voting machines, October-December 2008
The trick to defeating tamper-indicating seals
What an expert on seals has to say
Seals on NJ voting machines, March 2009
Seals on NJ voting machines, as of 2011
Why seals can't secure elections
NJ election cover-up
Did NJ election officials fail to respect court order to improve security of elections?
Will the NJ Attorney General investigate the NJ Attorney General?
What happens when the printed ballot face doesn't match the electronic ballot definition?
Open Access to Scholarly Publications at Princeton
Corruption Bureau assigns fox to guard henhouse
Appeal filed in NJ voting-machines lawsuit

2010 articles

No Warrant Necessary to Seize Your Laptop
Did a denial-of-service attack cause the stock-market "flash crash?"
Did a denial-of-service attack cause the flash crash? Probably not.
Court permits release of unredacted report on AVC Advantage
NJ court permits release of post-trial briefs in voting case
Unpeeling the mystique of tamper-indicating seals

2009 articles

Optical-scan voting extremely accurate in Minnesota
NJ Voting-machine trial update
NJ Voting-machine trial: Plaintiffs' witnesses
NJ Voting-machine Trial: Defense Witnesses
Thoughtcrime Experiments
Intractability of Financial Derivatives

2008 articles

Election Machinery blog
Judge Suppresses Report on Voting Machine Security
Report on the Sequioa AVC Advantage
Independent Voters Disenfranchised in Louisiana
Louisiana Re-enfranchises Independent Voters
Voting Machines are Silent in Princeton Today
Security Seals on AVC Advantage Voting Machines are Easily Defeated

2007 articles

AT&T Explains Guilt by Association
Eavesdropping as a Telecom Profit Center

On academic publishing in the 21st century:

My studies of voting technology

Digital Rights Management and Free Speech

Self-help getting to the New System, a short article I wrote studying how Computer Scientists and Political Scientists distribute their own papers through their web sites, October 2007.

I advised the undergraduate research of Alex Halderman, "Evaluating New Copy-Prevention Techniques for Audio CDs", which he presented at DRM 2002: 2002 ACM Workshop on Digital Rights Management.

My court declaration in the Felten v. RIAA case. Filed in United States District Court, Trenton, NJ, August 13, 2001.

The Speech is a Machine, freshman seminar course, taught Spring 2001.

Universal Studios v. Reimerdes - Appeal Brief of Amici Curiae. Harold Abelson, Andrew W. Appel, et al. Filed in United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit, January 23, 2001.

My court declaration (local copy) in the Universal Studios v. Reimerdes DVD case. April 2000.

Technological Access Control Interferes with Noninfringing Scholarship, by Andrew W. Appel and Edward W. Felten. February 17, 2000. Submitted in response to the Copyright Office's request for comments on what classes of works should be exempted from the Digital Millennium Copyright Act's prohibition on circumventing technological measures that control access to copyrighted works. Also published in Communications of the ACM 43 (9) 21-23, September 2000.


I testified as an expert witness in the Microsoft antitrust case.


My court declaration in the Junger cryptography case. September 1997. In an opinion dated April 4, 2000, the United States Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit holds in Junger v. Daley:

Because computer source code is an expressive means for the exchange of information and ideas about computer programming, we hold that it is protected by the First Amendment.

My court declaration in the Bernstein cryptography case. March 1996. In an opinion dated May 6, 1999, the United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit holds:

In light of these considerations, we conclude that encryption software, in its source code form and as employed by those in the field of cryptography, must be viewed as expressive for First Amendment purposes, and thus is entitled to the protections of the prior restraint doctrine.

Scholarly publishing

Security and document compatibility for electronic refereeing. Andrew W. Appel. CBE Views 20(1), 1997, published by the Council of Biology Editors.

How to Edit a Journal by E-mail. Andrew W. Appel. Journal of Scholarly Publishing, vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 82-99, January 1996.

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