Andrew W. Appel's Public Policy Page

I am interested in technology policy as it applies to freedom of speech: copyright law, cryptography law and policy, intellectual property, and scholarly inquiry. I have also studied and taught on issues relating to voting machines.

Securing the Vote: Protecting American Democracy, by National Academies of Science, Engineering, and Medicine: Lee C. Bollinger, Michael A. McRobbie, Andrew W. Appel, Josh Benaloh, Karen Cook, Dana DeBeauvoir, Moon Duchin, Juan E. Gilbert, Susan L. Graham, Neal Kelley, Kevin J. Kennedy, Nathaniel Persily, Ronald L. Rivest, Charles Stewart III. September 2018.

My blog at Freedom-to-Tinker

Articles about voting machines and elections

. . . can be found here.

Freedom-to-Tinker articles on other topics

Apple/FBI: Freedom of speech vs. compulsion to sign
Freedom to Tinker on the Radio
A clear line between offense and defense
Ed Felten elected to National Academy
Copyright in Scholarly Publishing, 2012 Edition
Modest Proposals for Academic Authors
Contract hacking and community organizing
Monitoring all the electrical and hydraulic appliances in your house
Seals on NJ voting machines, 2004-2008
Seals on NJ voting machines, October-December 2008
Open Access to Scholarly Publications at Princeton
Appeal filed in NJ voting-machines lawsuit
No Warrant Necessary to Seize Your Laptop
Did a denial-of-service attack cause the stock-market "flash crash?"
Did a denial-of-service attack cause the flash crash? Probably not.
Thoughtcrime Experiments
Intractability of Financial Derivatives
AT&T Explains Guilt by Association
Eavesdropping as a Telecom Profit Center

On academic publishing in the 21st century:

My studies of voting technology

Digital Rights Management and Free Speech

Self-help getting to the New System, a short article I wrote studying how Computer Scientists and Political Scientists distribute their own papers through their web sites, October 2007.

I advised the undergraduate research of Alex Halderman, "Evaluating New Copy-Prevention Techniques for Audio CDs", which he presented at DRM 2002: 2002 ACM Workshop on Digital Rights Management.

My court declaration in the Felten v. RIAA case. Filed in United States District Court, Trenton, NJ, August 13, 2001.

The Speech is a Machine, freshman seminar course, taught Spring 2001.

Universal Studios v. Reimerdes - Appeal Brief of Amici Curiae. Harold Abelson, Andrew W. Appel, et al. Filed in United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit, January 23, 2001.

My court declaration (local copy) in the Universal Studios v. Reimerdes DVD case. April 2000.

Technological Access Control Interferes with Noninfringing Scholarship, by Andrew W. Appel and Edward W. Felten. February 17, 2000. Submitted in response to the Copyright Office's request for comments on what classes of works should be exempted from the Digital Millennium Copyright Act's prohibition on circumventing technological measures that control access to copyrighted works. Also published in Communications of the ACM 43 (9) 21-23, September 2000.


I testified as an expert witness in the Microsoft antitrust case.


My court declaration in the Junger cryptography case. September 1997. In an opinion dated April 4, 2000, the United States Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit holds in Junger v. Daley:

Because computer source code is an expressive means for the exchange of information and ideas about computer programming, we hold that it is protected by the First Amendment.

My court declaration in the Bernstein cryptography case. March 1996. In an opinion dated May 6, 1999, the United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit holds:

In light of these considerations, we conclude that encryption software, in its source code form and as employed by those in the field of cryptography, must be viewed as expressive for First Amendment purposes, and thus is entitled to the protections of the prior restraint doctrine.

Scholarly publishing

Security and document compatibility for electronic refereeing. Andrew W. Appel. CBE Views 20(1), 1997, published by the Council of Biology Editors.

How to Edit a Journal by E-mail. Andrew W. Appel. Journal of Scholarly Publishing, vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 82-99, January 1996.

Best Viewed With Any Browser Free Speech Online Blue Ribbon Campaign Internet Privacy Coalition