# 4. Recursive Graphics

### Goals

• To write a library of static methods that performs geometric transforms on polygons.
• To write a program that plots a Sierpinski triangle.
• To design and develop a program that plots a recursive pattern of your own design.

### Getting Started

• This is an individual assignment. Before you begin coding, do the following:

• Download the project zip file for this assignment from TigerFile , which contains the files you will need for this assignment.

• Read the COS 126 Style Guide to ensure your code follows our conventions. Style is an important component of writing code, and not following guidelines will result in deductions.

### Background

Read Section 2.3 of the textbook. You may also find it instructive to work through the precept exercises. You should also familiarize yourself with the StdDraw API.

### Part I - Geometric Transformation Library

You will write a library of static methods that performs various geometric transforms on polygons. Mathematically, a polygon is defined by its sequence of vertices $$(x_0, y_0)$$, $$(x_1, y_1)$$, $$(x_2, y_2)$$, …. In Java, we will represent a polygon by storing the $$x))- and ((y))-coordinates of the vertices in two parallel arrays x[] and y[]. For example: // a polygon with these four vertices: // (0, 0), (1, 0), (1, 2), (0, 1) double x[] = { 0, 1, 1, 0 }; double y[] = { 0, 0, 2, 1 }; // Draw the polygon StdDraw.polygon(x, y);  All drawings were generated with the coordinate axes, but you will not see them using only the code provided. You do not need to plot the axes. ### Transform2D.java Write a two-dimensional transformation library Transform2D.java by implementing the following API: public class Transform2D { // Returns a new array object that is an exact copy of the given array. // The given array is not mutated. public static double[] copy(double[] array) // Scales the polygon by the factor alpha. public static void scale(double[] x, double[] y, double alpha) // Translates the polygon by (dx, dy). public static void translate(double[] x, double[] y, double dx, double dy) // Rotates the polygon theta degrees counterclockwise, about the origin. public static void rotate(double[] x, double[] y, double theta) // Tests each of the API methods by directly calling them. public static void main(String[] args) }  #### Requirements • The API expects the angles to be in degrees, but Java’s trigonometric functions take the arguments in radians. Use Math.toRadians() to convert from degrees to radians. • The transformation methods scale(), translate(), and rotate() mutate the arrays, while copy() returns a new array. • The main() method must test each method of the Transform2D library. In other words, you must call each Transform2D method from main(). You should experiment with various data so you are confident that your methods are implemented correctly. • You can assume the following about the inputs: the arrays passed to scale(), translate(), and rotate() are not null, are the same length, and do not contain the values NaN, Double.POSITIVE_INFINITY, or Double.NEGATIVE_INFINITY. • The array passed to copy() is not null. • The values for the parameters alpha, theta, dx, and dy are not NaN, Double.POSITIVE_INFINITY, or Double.NEGATIVE_INFINITY. #### copy() Copies the given array into a new array object. The given array is not mutated. The transformation methods (below) mutate a given polygon. This means that the parallel arrays representing the polygon are altered by the transformation methods. It is often useful to save a copy of the polygon before applying a transform. For example: public static void main(String[] args) { // Set the x- and y-scale StdDraw.setScale(-5.0, 5.0); // Create original polygon double[] x = { 0, 1, 1, 0 }; double[] y = { 0, 0, 2, 1 }; // Copy original polygon double[] cx = copy(x); double[] cy = copy(y); // Rotate and translate the copy rotate(cx, cy, -45.0); translate(cx, cy, 1.0, 2.0); // Draw the copy in blue StdDraw.setPenColor(StdDraw.BLUE); StdDraw.polygon(cx, cy); // Draw the original polygon in red StdDraw.setPenColor(StdDraw.RED); StdDraw.polygon(x, y); }  #### scale() Scales the coordinates of each vertex \( (x_i, y_i)$$ by a factor α.

$$x_i^\prime = αx_i$$

$$y_i^\prime = αy_i$$

An example of testing code for scale() is provided below. However, we highly encourage you to experiment with various values to confirm that your methods work as required.

public static void main(String[] args) {
// Set the x- and y-scale
StdDraw.setScale(-5.0, +5.0);

// Create polygon
double[] x = { 0, 1, 1, 0 };
double[] y = { 0, 0, 2, 1 };

// Draw original polygon in red
StdDraw.setPenColor(StdDraw.RED);
StdDraw.polygon(x, y);

// Scale polygon by 2.0
scale(x, y, 2.0);

// Draw scaled polygon in blue
StdDraw.setPenColor(StdDraw.BLUE);
StdDraw.polygon(x, y);
}


#### translate()

Translates each vertex $$(x_i, y_i)$$ by a given offset $$(dx, dy)$$.

$$x_i^\prime = x_i + d_x$$

$$y_i^\prime = y_i + d_y$$

An example of testing code for translate() is provided below. However, we highly encourage you to experiment with various values to confirm that your methods work as required.

public static void main(String[] args) {
// Set the x- and y-scale
StdDraw.setScale(-5.0, +5.0);

// Create polygon
double[] x = { 0, 1, 1, 0 };
double[] y = { 0, 0, 2, 1 };

// Draw original polygon in red
StdDraw.setPenColor(StdDraw.RED);
StdDraw.polygon(x, y);

// Translate polygon by
// 2.0 in the x-direction
// 1.0 in the y-direction
translate(x, y, 2.0, 1.0);

// Draw translated polygon in blue
StdDraw.setPenColor(StdDraw.BLUE);
StdDraw.polygon(x, y);
}


#### rotate()

Rotates each vertex $$(x_i, y_i)$$ by $$\theta$$ degrees counterclockwise around the origin.

$$x_i^\prime = x_i \cos \theta − y_i \sin \theta$$

$$y_i^\prime = y_i \cos \theta + x_i \sin \theta$$

Note in the equations, $$x_i^\prime$$ and $$y_i^\prime$$ depend on the $$x_i$$ and $$y_i$$, respectively. In your implementation, you may want to make a copy of the $$x$$ and $$y$$ arrays before you compute the $$x^\prime$$ and $$y^\prime$$ arrays!

Also remember that Math.cos() and Math.sin() require radians.

An example of testing code for rotate() is provided below. However, we highly encourage you to experiment with various values to confirm that your methods work as required.

public static void main(String[] args) {
// Set the x- and y-scale
StdDraw.setScale(-5.0, +5.0);

// Create polygon
double[] x = { 0, 1, 1, 0 };
double[] y = { 0, 0, 2, 1 };

// Draw original polygon in red
StdDraw.setPenColor(StdDraw.RED);
StdDraw.polygon(x, y);

// Rotate polygon by 45 degrees ccw
rotate(x, y, 45.0);

// Draw rotated polygon in blue
StdDraw.setPenColor(StdDraw.BLUE);
StdDraw.polygon(x, y);
}


A polygon does not have to be located at the origin in order to rotate it; you can rotate any polygon about the origin using the same method. For example:

public static void main(String[] args) {
// Set the x- and y-scale
StdDraw.setScale(-5.0, +5.0);

// Create polygon
double[] x = { 1, 2, 2, 1 };
double[] y = { 1, 1, 3, 2 };

// Draw original polygon in red
StdDraw.setPenColor(StdDraw.RED);
StdDraw.polygon(x, y);

// Rotate polygon by 90 degrees ccw
rotate(x, y, 90.0);

// Draw rotated polygon in blue
StdDraw.setPenColor(StdDraw.BLUE);
StdDraw.polygon(x, y);
}


Note: All drawings were generated with the coordinate axes, but you will not see them using only the code provided. You do not need to plot the axes.

Rotating Around Arbitrary Point

Even though the rotate code above will only rotate polygons about the origin, you could easily transform about any other point $$(px, py)$$ using a simple technique. First, translate the polygon by $$(-px, -py)$$ so that the rotation point is now at the origin. Next, use your rotate() function above to rotate about the origin. Finally, move the polygon back to the rotation point by simply translating by $$(px, py)$$. Bam – three lines of code, and you’re done! This might be helpful if you draw polygons in your art project below.

#### main()

Tests each method of the Transform2D library by calling it. You should experiment with various data so you are confident that your methods are implemented correctly. Feel free to draw to standard draw using different polygons. You should not expect any command-line arguments.

### Part II - Sierpinski Triangle

The Sierpinski triangle is an example of a fractal pattern like the H-tree pattern from Section 2.3 of the textbook.

Order 1

Order 2

Order 3

Order 4

Order 5

Order 6

The Polish mathematician Wacław Sierpiński described the pattern in 1915, but it has appeared in Italian art since the 13th century. Though the Sierpinski triangle looks complex, it can be generated with a short recursive function.

Your primary task is to write a recursive function sierpinski() that plots a Sierpinski triangle of order n to standard drawing. Think recursively: sierpinski() should draw one filled equilateral triangle (pointed downwards) and then call itself recursively three times (with an appropriate stopping condition). It should draw one (1) filled triangle for n = 1; four (4) filled triangles for n = 2; and three (3) filled triangles for n = 3; and so forth.

### Sierpinski.java

When writing your program, exercise modular design by organizing it into four functions, as specified in the following API:

public class Sierpinski {

// Height of an equilateral triangle with the specified side length.
public static double height(double length)

// Draws a filled equilateral triangle with the specified side length
// whose bottom vertex is (x, y).
public static void filledTriangle(double x, double y, double length)

// Draws a Sierpinski triangle of order n, such that the largest filled
// triangle has the specified side length and bottom vertex (x, y).
public static void sierpinski(int n, double x, double y, double length)

// Takes an integer command-line argument n;
// draws the outline of an upwards equilateral triangle of length 1
// whose bottom-left vertex is (0, 0) and bottom-right vertex is (1, 0);
// and draws a Sierpinski triangle of order n that fits inside the outline.
public static void main(String[] args)

}


The formula for the height of an equilateral triangle of side length $$s$$ is $$h = s \times \frac{\sqrt{3}}{2}$$.

Here is the layout of the initial equilateral triangle. The top vertex lies at $$(\frac{1}{2},\frac {\sqrt{3}}{2})$$.

Here is the layout of an inverted equilateral triangle.

#### Requirements

1. The program must take an integer command-line argument n.
2. To draw a filled equilateral triangle, you should call the method StdDraw.filledPolygon() with appropriate arguments.
3. To draw an unfilled equilateral triangle, you should call the method StdDraw.polygon() with appropriate arguments.
4. You must not call StdDraw.save(), StdDraw.setCanvasSize(), StdDraw.setXscale(), StdDraw.setYscale(), or StdDraw.setScale(). These method calls interfere with grading.
5. You may only use StdDraw.BLACK to draw the outline triangle or the filled triangles.

#### Possible Progress Steps

Click to show possible progress steps

These are purely suggestions for how you might make progress. You do not have to follow these steps. Note that your final Sierpinski.java program should not be very long (no longer than Htree.java, not including comments and blank lines).

• Review Htree.java from the textbook, lecture and precept.
• Write a (non-recursive) function height() that takes the length of the side of an equilateral triangle as an argument and returns its height. The body of this method should be a one-liner.
• Test your height() function. This means try your height() function with various values. Does it return the correct calculation?
• In main(), draw the outline of the initial equilateral triangle. Use the height() function to calculate the vertices of the triangle.
• Write a (nonrecursive) function filledTriangle() that takes three (3) arguments (x, y, length) and draws a filled equilateral triangle (pointed downward) with the specified side length and the bottom vertex at $$(x, y)$$.
• To test your function, write main() so that it calls filledTriangle() a few times with different arguments. You will be able to use this function without modification in Sierpinski.java.
• Ultimately, you must write a recursive function sierpinski() that takes four (4) arguments (n, x, y, length) and plots a Sierpinski triangle of order n, whose largest triangle has the specified side length and bottom vertex $$(x, y)$$. However, to implement this function, use an incremental approach:
• Write a recursive function sierpinski() that takes one argument n, prints the value n, and then calls itself three times with the value n-1. The recursion should stop when n becomes 0.
• To test your function, write main() so that it takes an integer command-line argument n and calls sierpinski(n). Ignoring whitespace, you should get the following output when you call sierpinski() with n ranging from 0 to 5. Make sure you understand how this function works, and why it prints the numbers in the order it does.
> java-introcs Sierpinski 0
[no output]

> java-introcs Sierpinski 1
1

> java-introcs Sierpinski 2
2
1
1
1

> java-introcs Sierpinski 3
3
2 1 1 1
2 1 1 1
2 1 1 1

> java-introcs Sierpinski 4
4
3 2 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 2 1 1 1
3 2 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 2 1 1 1
3 2 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 2 1 1 1

> java-introcs Sierpinski 5
5
4 3 2 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 2 1 1 1
3 2 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 2 1 1 1
3 2 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 2 1 1 1
4 3 2 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 2 1 1 1
3 2 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 2 1 1 1
3 2 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 2 1 1 1
4 3 2 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 2 1 1 1
3 2 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 2 1 1 1
3 2 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 2 1 1 1

• Modify sierpinski() so that in addition to printing n, it also prints the length of the triangle to be plotted. Your function should now take two arguments: n and length. The initial call from main() should be to sierpinski(n, 0.5), since the largest Sierpinski triangle has side length 0.5. Each successive level of recursion halves the length. Ignoring whitespace, your function should produce the following output:
> java-introcs Sierpinski 0
[no output]

> java-introcs Sierpinski 1
1 0.5

> java-introcs Sierpinski 2
2 0.5
1 0.25
1 0.25
1 0.25

> java-introcs Sierpinski 3
3 0.5
2 0.25  1 0.125  1 0.125  1 0.125
2 0.25  1 0.125  1 0.125  1 0.125
2 0.25  1 0.125  1 0.125  1 0.125

> java-introcs Sierpinski 4
4 0.5
3 0.25  2 0.125  1 0.0625  1 0.0625  1 0.0625
2 0.125  1 0.0625  1 0.0625  1 0.0625
2 0.125  1 0.0625  1 0.0625  1 0.0625
3 0.25  2 0.125  1 0.0625  1 0.0625  1 0.0625
2 0.125  1 0.0625  1 0.0625  1 0.0625
2 0.125  1 0.0625  1 0.0625  1 0.0625
3 0.25  2 0.125  1 0.0625  1 0.0625  1 0.0625
2 0.125  1 0.0625  1 0.0625  1 0.0625
2 0.125  1 0.0625  1 0.0625  1 0.0625

• Modify sierpinski() so that it takes four (4) arguments (n, x, y, length) and plots a Sierpinski triangle of order n, whose largest triangle has the specified side length and bottom vertex $$(x, y)$$. Start by drawing Sierpinski triangles with pencil and paper. What values need to change between each recursive call?
• Remove all print statements before submitting to TigerFile.

#### Testing

Below are the target Sierpinski triangles for different values of n.

> java-introcs Sierpinski 1


> java-introcs Sierpinski 2


> java-introcs Sierpinski 3


### Part III - Create Your Own Art

#### Art.java

In this part you will create a program Art.java that produces a recursive drawing of your own design. This part is meant to be fun, but here are some guidelines in case you’re not so artistic.

A very good approach is to first choose a self-referential pattern as a target output. Check out the graphics exercises in Section 2.3. Here are some of our favorite student submissions from a previous year. See also the Famous Fractals in Fractals Unleashed for some ideas. Here is a list of fractals, by Hausdorff dimension. Some pictures are harder to generate than others (and some require trigonometry).

#### Requirements

1. Art.java must take one (1) integer command-line argument n that controls the depth of recursion.
2. Your drawing must stay within the drawing window when n is between 1 and 6 inclusive. (The autograder will not test values of n outside of this range.)
3. You may not change the size of the drawing window (but you may change the scale). Do not add sound.
4. Your drawing can be a geometric pattern, a random construction, or anything else that takes advantage of recursive functions.
5. Optionally, you may use the Transform2D library you implemented in Part 1. You may also define additional geometric transforms in Art.java, such as sheer, reflect across the $$x$$- or $$y$$- axis, or rotate about an arbitrary point (as opposed to the origin).
6. Your program must be organized into at least three separate functions, including main(). All functions except main() must be private.
7. For full credit, Art.java must not be something that could be easily rewritten to use loops in place of recursion, and some aspects of the recursive function-call tree (or how parameters or overlapping are used) must be distinct from the in-class examples (HTree, NestedCircles, etc.). You must do at least two of the following things to get full credit on Art.java (and doing more may yield a small amount of extra credit):
• call one or more Transform2D methods
• use different parameters than in examples: f(n, x, y, size)
• use different StdDraw methods than in examples (e.g., ellipses, arcs, text; take a look at the StdDraw API)
• have non-constant number of recursive calls per level (e.g., conditional recursion)
• have mutually recursive methods
• have multiple recursive methods
• use recursion that doesn’t always recur from level n to level n-1
• draw between recursive calls, not just before or after all recursive calls
• use recursive level for secondary purpose (e.g., level dictates color)
8. Contrast this with the examples HTree, Sierpinski, and NestedCircles, which have very similar structures to one another.
9. You will also lose points if your artwork can be created just as easily without recursion (such as Factorial.java). If the recursive function-call tree for your method is a straight line, it probably falls under this category.
10. You may use GIF, JPG, or PNG files in my artistic creation. If you do, be sure to submit them along with your other files. Make it clear in your readme.txt what part of the design is yours and what part is borrowed from the image file.

#### FAQ

The API checker says that I need to make my methods private. Use the access modifier private instead of public in the method signature. A public method can be called directly in another class; a private method cannot. The only public method that you should have in Art.java is main().

What will cause me to lose points on the artistic part? We consider three things: the structure of the code; the structure of the recursive function-call tree; and the art itself.

For example, the Quadricross looks very different from the in-class examples, but the code to generate it looks extremely similar to HTree, so it is a bad choice. On the other hand, even though the Sierpinski curve eventually generates something that looks like the Sierpinski triangle, the code is very different (probably including an angle argument in the recursive method), and so it would earn full marks.

Here is an animation we produced using student art:

### Submission

• Submit to TigerFile : Transform2D.java, Sierpinski.java, Art.java (and optional image files), and completed readme.txt and acknowledgments.txt files.

• Note that, as part of this assignment, we may anonymously publish your art. If you object, please indicate so in your readme.txt when asked. We also reserve the right to pull any art, at any time, for whatever reason -— and by submitting your assignment, you implicitly agree with this policy.

### Enrichment

Fractals in the wild. Here’s a Sierpinski triangle in polymer clay, a Sierpinski carpet cookie, a fractal pizza, and a Sierpinski hamantaschen.

Fractal dimension (optional diversion). In grade school, you learn that the dimension of a line segment is 1, the dimension of a square is 2, and the dimension of a cube is 3. But you probably didn’t learn what is really meant by the term dimension. How can we express what it means mathematically or computationally? Formally, we can define the Hausdorff dimension or similarity dimension of a self-similar figure by partitioning the figure into a number of self-similar pieces of smaller size. We define the dimension to be the $$\log$$ (# self similar pieces) / $$\log$$ (scaling factor in each spatial direction). For example, we can decompose the unit square into four smaller squares, each of side length 1/2; or we can decompose it into 25 squares, each of side length 1/5. Here, the number of self-similar pieces is 4 (or 25) and the scaling factor is 2 (or 5). Thus, the dimension of a square is 2, since $$\log (4) / \log(2) = \log (25) / \log (5) = 2$$. Furthermore, we can decompose the unit cube into 8 cubes, each of side length 1/2; or we can decompose it into 125 cubes, each of side length 1/5. Therefore, the dimension of a cube is $$\log(8) / \log (2) = \log(125) / \log(5) = 3$$.

We can also apply this definition directly to the (set of white points in) Sierpinski triangle. We can decompose the unit Sierpinski triangle into three Sierpinski triangles, each of side length 1/2. Thus, the dimension of a Sierpinski triangle is $$\log (3) / \log (2) ≈ 1.585$$. Its dimension is fractional—more than a line segment, but less than a square! With Euclidean geometry, the dimension is always an integer; with fractal geometry, it can be something in between. Fractals are similar to many physical objects; for example, the coastline of Britain resembles a fractal; its fractal dimension has been measured to be approximately 1.25.