### ANALYSIS OF ALGORITHMS STUDY GUIDE

Tilde notation. We say that f(N) ~ g(N) if f(N)/g(N) converges to 1 as N gets large. This is a general concept about mathematical functions and is not restricted to running time, memory, or any other specific domain.

Power-law assumption. For empirical analyses in COS 226, we typically assume that the running time obeys a power law—T(N) ~ aNb. Empirical derivation of accurate hypotheses for non-power law running times is beyond the scope of our course.

Cost model. For theoretical analyses of running time in COS 226, we will assume a cost model, namely that some particular operation (or operations) dominates the running time of a program. Then, we express the running time in terms of the total number of that operation as a function of the input size. To simplify things, we usually give this frequency count in Tilde notation.

Order of growth. If we have two functions f(N) and g(N), and f(n) ~ c g(N) for some constant c > 0, we say the order of growth of f(N) is g(N). Typically g(N) is one of the following functions: 1, log N, N, N log N, N2, N3, or 2N.

Performance depends on inputs. We can characterize an algorithm's performance by its best case, worst case, and average case.

Difficulty of a problem. To understand the difficulty of a particular problem in COS 226, we often consider the worst-case order-of-growth of the best possible algorithm for the problem. We can upper bound the difficulty of a problem by the performance of the best-known algorithm. Finding a good lower bound for a problem is usually a difficult challenge.

Big Oh, Big Omega, Big Theta. These notations are commonly used in the theory of algorithms. They are similar in spirit to Tilde notation, but throw away leading constants. Many programmers use Big-Oh notation incorrectly when they really mean order of growth.

Worst-case order of growth isn't everything. Just because one algorithm has a better order of growth than other does not mean that it is faster in practice. We will encounter some notable counterexamples, including quicksort vs. mergesort.

Memory analysis. Know how to calculate the memory utilization of a class with the 64-bit memory model from the textbook.

Theoretical and empirical analysis. Hypotheses generated through theoretical analysis (or guesswork like our power law assumption) should be validated with data before being fully trusted.

### Recommended Problems

#### C level

1. Textbook 1.4.4
2. Fall 2010 Midterm, #1d
3. Fall 2011 Midterm, #2

#### B level

1. Textbook 1.4.5
2. Fall 2009 Midterm, #1
3. Fall 2010 Midterm, #1a, #1c
4. Spring 2012 Midterm, #1
5. Spring 2013 Final, #4

#### A level

1. Spring 2013 Midterm, #1
2. Suppose the optimal (and possibly unknown) solution to problem P has order of growth F(N). Suppose that the best known solution has runtime that is Θ(B(N)). Finally, suppose that there is a clever proof that no solution can possibly have order of growth that is less than L(N). Which of the following can you surmise?
1. F(N) = O(B(N))
2. B(N) = O(F(N))
3. The limit of F(N)/B(N) as N goes to infinity cannot be infinity.
4. F(N) = Ω(L(N))
5. L(N) = Ω(F(N))
6. B(N) > F(N) for sufficiently large N.