COS-598A, Spring 2017, Kyle Jamieson
L3: SampleRate (Chapter 3)
Indoor Network Measurements
- 45-node indoor wireless testbed
- Mesh topology
- Linux Soekris router with Atheros 802.11a/b/g card
- RTS/CTS protocol disabled
- Link-level acknowledgements enabled
- Use a quiet 802.11 channel
- Throughput experiments
Difference from theory: Many intermediate delivery rates exist (Figure 3-2, middle)
- Indoor, 802.11g; vary the bit rate over \(45^2 ~= 2,000\) possible links.
- Note that most of the 24 Mbit/s links are not operating at 24 Mbit/s, and there are many such links. Similar trends for other bit rates.
- From previous graphs we would expect very few intermediate links, but that’s not how it works in practice.
- Contradicts theoretical packetized throughput prediction!
- Bit rate adaptation algorithms must cope
Difference from theory: Does faster always mean more loss? (Figure 3-3)
- Experiment: one sender at a time in indoor network, 1500 byte
packets, everyone else listens, all links
- 9 Mbit/s vs 6 Mbit/s (upper right): 9 works well only if 6 works well. Both use BPSK, same modulation, but different channel coding.
- 6 Mbit/s vs 1 Mbit/s (upper left): Some links are better with the newer but faster 6 Mbit/s 802.11g OFDM, some work better with the older but slower 1 Mbit/s 802.11b DSSS.
- Similar trends in newer work with differing numbers of spatial streams
How rapidly does bit rate adaptation need to adapt? (Figures 3-4, 3-5)
- Delivery probability fluctuates rapidly (Figure 3-4), some links more bursty than others with similar average delivery probabilities.
- Each node sends interleaved 1500 byte packets at 6, 9, 12, 18, 24 Mbit/s; divide time into t millisecond intervals over which an “omniscient” algorithm chooses the best throughput bit rate.
- Diminishing gains past \(t=10\) second adaptation interval
- What about \(t < 50\) ms (not shown) – some measurement studies claim the indoor wireless channel stays the same for about 30 ms, so there might be more room for improvement (later work with walking speed mobility affirms this).
Can SNR predict delivery probability? (Figures 3-6, 3-7)
- Figure 3-6: Each graph = one bit rate, each point = one link
- x axis? average SNR
- y axis? average delivery rate
- Takeaway: Can’t choose a useful S/N threshold that predicts delivery
- Figure 3-7: Each graph = one receiver, each point = one sender (all 1 Mbit/s rate)
- This factors out receive radio hardware variability, better relationship
- Multipath different on different links though.
- Across all links, picking a S/N threshold that predicts delivery is hard, so SampleRate abandons this.
- But subsequent work showed benefits (Effective SNR, will read later).
Classifying links' bitrate-loss relationships (Figures 3-8, 3-9)
- Three example links shown here (Figure 3-8).
- Grey bar: ideal throughput; black bar: actual throughput achieved,
averaged across time.
- Definitions (count of types in Figure 3-9):
- Steep: All links either > 90% delivery, or < 10% delivery
- Gradual: Gradually more loss at higher bitrates but the best-performing bitrate = highest bitrate with < 50% loss
- Lossy: Best link has delivery rate well below < 50%
- For steep bitrates, can just pick highest loss-free bitrate;
but this is disasterous when gradual links exist.
- For lossy links, need to increase bitrate despite loss.
ARF, Adaptive ARF (Chapter 4)
- Original WaveLAN-II (Lucent) algorithm, circa 1996
- Definion: packet is new data, may have several transmissions (attempts to send the packet).
- State: current bit rate, # consecutive successful transmissions
- Start at highest
- Okay packet is one that required just one transmission. Maintain
- Step down if no ack after
- Step up if 10 consecutive “okay” transmissions occur (this is
called a probe)
- What would ARF do:
- On the steep links? + (Start at 11, fail, pick 5.5)
- ..gradual links? – (Get stuck at high rate sometimes, don’t step down
until complete failure. Once you step up in a Gradual link, less likely to step down immediately than in a Steep link, less loss @ 11 for Gradual, since you need four consecutive frame losses to step down.)
- ..lossy links? – (Once you step down, you may not step up, and get stuck
at low rate sometimes.)
- Adaptive ARF: Even on steep link, ARF sends probes. Adapt step-up
parameter (10 transmits), double every time increase bitrate and subsequent
- Backoff penalty high for high 802.11g bit rates, so helps.
- Will AARF do better on gradual? (no) Lossy? (no)
- Atsushi Onoe (engineer at Sony/Japan)
Highest bitrate with < 50% loss
what would ONOE do on the steep links? +
1st sec. 11
2nd sec. 5.5
3rd sec. 5.5
10th sec. 11
11th sec 5.5
12th sec 5.5
what would ONOE do on the gradual links? +
1st sec. 11
2nd sec. 5.5 (line 3)
3rd sec. 5.5
NO probe up to 11 periodically every 10 sec. (credits don’t accum)
what would ONOE do on the lossy links? –
1st sec 11
2nd sec 5.5
3rd sec 2
4th sec 1
SampleRate (Chapter 5)
Basic idea: consider time to send a packet. Track:
- Average send time @ bitrate (empirically measure)
- Lossless send time @ bitrate (constant)
Choose bitrate with least average send time
Probe some other bitrates
- Probing happens one every 10 packets
- Probe a candidate set of rates having a lossless transmission time less than the current average transmission time
Expire information that is more than 10 seconds old
Slide: Measuring time to send a packet
- Any problems with this?
- What about backoff time before transmissions apart from the last
- What about intervening transmissions from other nodes?
- Not counted in this calculation, but impacts all bit rates about
Slide: SampleRate in operation
- Notation: packets(transmissions)@rate
- upper dest: fails at rate = 11, perfect at rate = 5.5
- 4(16)@11, switch to 5.5, 100(100)@5.5
- why won’t it try rate = 2, 1? (lossless@2 and 1 > email@example.com)
- when will it next try rate = 11? (10 sec, after
- lower dest: one retry at rate = 11, 90% 0 retries, 10% 1 retry at
rate = 5.5
- 9(18)@11, 1(1)@5.5, switch to 5.5, 9(9)@5.5
- why probe 5.5? (b/c 2976 < 3761)
- why switch to 5.5? (b/c 2976 (avg. xmit time) < 3761, same reason)
Evaluation (Chapter 6)
ARF mostly chooses correct bit rate (Figure 6-2)
- x-axis: static-best throughput
- y-axis: hypothetical – take the bitrate that ARF chose most
often, plot throughput of static-best for that bitrate
- Conclusion: ARF chose right bitrate most of the time! Hypothesis: ARF spends too much time trying other bit rates.
Slide: 802.11a indoor throughput
- ARF spends too much time trying other bit rates, especially on the steep links
- What about interference from other 802.11 traffic?
- What about mobility?
- What about SNR-based rate adaptation?
- Cellular mobile networks use SNR to adapt
- Why do we have trouble applying it for 802.11?
- More recent work in this area by Halperin (SIGCOMM 2010)