What is meant by an immutable data type? An object is immutable if its data-type value (state) never changes once it is constructed. A data type is immutable if every object of that type is immutable. For example, to make the Autocomplete data type immutable, you must make a defensive copy of the terms array in the constructor (because the client might mutate the original terms array after constructing the Autocomplete object).
Can my methods have side effects that are not described in the API? No. For example, the Autocomplete data type should not mutate the terms array (or it could have a serious side effect on the client). Similarly, the firstIndexOf() and lastIndexOf() should not mutate their argument arrays. We usually allow methods to have benign side effects, such as changing the state of a random number generator.
What is the meaning of the modifier static in the following function declarations?
It means that there is one (static) method for the entire class instance of one (instance) method per object. Since there is a single total order (by weight), the static modifier is appropriate.public static Comparator<Term> byReverseWeightOrder()
What is the meaning of the type parameter Key in the following function declaration?
This is an example of a generic method, which introduces its own type parameter Key. The type parameter serves as a placeholder for the argument types that are passed to the generic method. For example, it enforces the constraint that the type of the elements in the array a must match the type of the search key key (so that the compiler would allow Apple and Apple but reject Apple and Orange). This bit of Java minutiae is necessary to enable the program to compile without warnings.public static <Key> int firstIndexOf(Key a, Key key, Comparator<Key> comparator)
When I compile BinarySearchDeluxe.java I get the compiler warning "unchecked call to compare(T, T) as a member of the raw type java.util.Comparator." Is that OK? No, your program should compile without any errors or warnings.
Can I use Arrays.binarySearch()? Yes. However, note that Arrays.binarySearch() returns the index of any matching key (not necessarily the first or last such key), so it will not be of much help.
How can I compare two strings lexicographically? Lexicographic order is the natural order for strings, so you can use the compareTo() method to do so.
What exactly does it mean to compare two string by their first r characters? You should compare the two strings lexicographically, as in the natural order for Java strings, but you should never examine more than r characters of either string. For example, if r = 3, then cat is less than dog; dog is equal to dogcatcher; and do is less than dogcatcher. Note that in the last example, do has fewer than 3 characters, so we compare the whole string do to the first 3 characters of dogcatcher.
Can I assume that the weights are all distinct? No. However, if there are two terms with equal weights, the allMatches() method can return them in arbitrary order.
Can I assume that the Autocomplete constructor receives the terms in descending order by weight? No. While many of the sample input files are in descending order by weight, do not make any assumptions about the order.
What should allMatches() return if there are no matching terms? An array of length 0.
Should Autocomplete be case sensitive? For instance, if I enter in the prefix "prince" and if one of my terms has a query "Princeton", should "Princeton" be included among the matches? On this assignment, you should assume the case matters. In a real application, you might want some kind of case insensitive order. This can be a bit tricky with non-ASCII characters (but Java does have various libraries to deal with that).
Can a prefix or query string be the empty string? Yes and yes. For example, the empty-string prefix should return all queries, in descending order by weight. It might be harder to think of an application for an empty-string query, but the API does not exclude this possibility.
What do I need to do to handle Unicode characters and UTF-8 encoding? You shouldn't need to do anything special: The Java String data type handles Unicode naturally; The supplied test files are encoded using UTF-8. When reading input or writing output, StdIn, In, and StdOut assume UTF-8 encoding.
Why do I get a java.util.InputMismatchException from readLong() when I run the sample client? You probably have an old version of stdlib.jar in your classpath that doesn't assume UTF-8 encoding. On Mac OS X, be sure to check /Library/Extensions/Java and ~/Library/Extensions/Java folders.
Why do I get a java.util.NoSuchElementException from readInt() when I run the sample client? Did you cut-and-paste the file instead of downloading it? Your text editor may have corrupted the file by changing the encoding from UTF-8 to something else.
How can I view the Unicode characters that my program prints out?
Input files. Below are some input files for testing. Each input file consists of an integer N followed by N pairs of terms and integer weights, one pair per line, with the term and weight separated by a tab. The terms can be arbitrary strings consisting of Unicode characters, including spaces (but neither tabs nor newlines).
file number term weight source pu-buildings.txt 166 Princeton buildings age (in Y10K) pokemon.txt 729 Pokemon popularity Allen Qin fortune1000.txt 1,000 company revenue Fortune 1000 nasdaq.txt 2,658 NASDAQ market cap nasdaq.com metal-albums.txt 3,000 metal albums votes Metal Storm pu-courses.txt 6,771 course enrollment Princeton Registrar wiktionary.txt 10,000 word frequency Wiktionary redditors.txt 10,000 reddittor subscribers redditlist.com baby-names.txt 31,109 first name frequency U.S. Social Security trademarks.txt 92,254 company U.S. trademark number USPTO cities.txt 93,827 city population geoba.se mandarin.txt 94,339 Mandarin word frequency Invoke IT bing.txt 250,000 word Bing search frequency Microsoft Web N-gram 2grams.txt 277,718 2-gram frequency Google Web Trillion Word Corpus 3grams.txt 1,020,009 3-gram frequency Corpus of Contemporary American English 4grams.txt 1,034,308 4-gram frequency Corpus of Contemporary American English 5grams.txt 1,044,269 5-gram frequency Corpus of Contemporary American English words-3333333.txt 333,333 word frequency Google Web Trillion Word Corpus artists.txt 43,849 music artist familiarity Million Song Dataset songs.txt 922,230 song hotttnesss Million Song Dataset alexa.txt 1,000,000 web site frequency Alexa imdb-votes.txt 82,455 movie number of votes Internet Movie Database movies.txt 229,447 movies revenue (USD) Internet Movie Database actors.txt 2,875,183 actors revenue (USD) Internet Movie Database
These are purely suggestions for how you might make progress. You do not have to follow these steps.
A video is provided for those wishing additional assistance. Be forewarned that video was made in early 2014 and is somewhat out of date. For example the API has changed.
Suppose that I want to find only the top-k matching terms (instead of all matching terms). Are there better algorithms? Yes. The problem of finding the top term matching a given prefix can be formulated as a range maximum query problem or equivalently as a lowest common ancestor problem. Here are some lecture notes by Erik Demaine on the equivalence.
Any way to find the range of words that start with a given prefix in time proportional to the length of the prefix (in the worst case)? Yes, use a suffix tree (or a suffix array with the lcp array), where the terms are separated by a word-separation symbol and concatenated together. To use space proportional to the number of terms consider a suffix array on words. Or consider a compact DAWG.