How do you know where your hand is? Kinesthesis
Sense of muscle "tone," and position/motion from
the feedback we get from the nerves in our muscles.
How do you know where your eye is going to look? Efference Copy
Copy of efferent motor eye control signal to visual input system.
This allows us to move our eyes and not be surprised when the visual
image shifts. Importantly, allows us to do eye
saccades without getting sick.
And is the reason we feel sick when our visual system
gets "out of sync."
How do we feel texture? Pressure? Pain?
Different cells for different stimuli
What's necessary to display/feel texture/profile?
Margaret Minsky's work in haptic texture synthesis
Force-reflecting teleoperation (GE in the '60s):...tapes...and belts...
Virtual haptics in the '90s:
Massie's Phantom Ruspini's
Some recent products:
The Haptics Community Photo